In this 167th episode I review the most recent changes that we’ve made to our protocols for caring for COVID patients and share a fantastic one page summary sheet that 3 of our ICU fellows put together. Huge thanks to Drs. Navarette, Herekar and Baronos for their work on this. It is available for download below. References are on the second page of the attachment.
In this 165th episode I welcome Drs. Scott and Cereda from University of Pennsylvania and Dr. Nacoti from Italy to talk about COVID-19, what it is, what we know about it, what it’s like on the ground in Italy right now, and what we can learn from their experience to try to prevent it from happening here.
Grasselli G, Pesenti A, Cecconi M. Critical care utilization for the COVID-19 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy: early experience and forecast during an emergency response. JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4031
In this 164th episode I welcome back Dr. Gillian Isaac to do another ABA keywords episode. We discuss fentanyl and breathing systems (Mapleson and Circle systems).
Great info from Aaron Sandock:
The toxicity was reported in rats and research was published in the early-mid 90’s.
Gonsowski, C., Laster, M., Eger, E., Ferrell, L. and Kerschmann, R. Toxicity of Compound A in Rats: Effect of a 3-Hour Administration
It is actually the case that follow up studies were done in the US on volunteer patients through University of Arizona and Medical College of Wisconsin in the later 1990’s.Ebert, T., Frink, E. and Kharasch, E. Absence of Biochemical Evidence for Renal and Hepatic Dysfunction after 8 Hours of 1.25 Minimum Alveolar Concentration Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Volunteers. Anesthesiology. 1998;88(3):601-610.
Kharasch, E. and Jubert, C. Compound A Uptake and Metabolism to Mercapturic Acids and 3,3,3-Trifluoro-2-fluoromethoxypropanoic Acid during Low-flow Sevoflurane Anesthesia.
The key point of the final article concludes that humans are nearly devoid of renal beta lyase, the key enzyme in directing biodegradation of compound A to the toxic renal thiol. Essentially, this research was done in the late 90’s but the original possibility of renal toxicity in humans from just a few years prior has stuck in peoples’ minds (and therefore textbooks).
More recent studies agree:
Med Gas Res. 2017 Oct 17;7(3):186-193.
Gillian’s random recommendation: Born a Crime by Trevor Noah
Circle C Farm: https://www.circlecfarmfl.com
In this 163rd episode I welcome Dr. Barbara Versyck to the show to discuss thoracic wall blocks. We discuss the types of blocks, what they are used for, and what the evidence is for their efficacy.
Serratus Anterior block: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K2w46jjMgfMErector
Spinae plane block: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVowRjEFUfk
Chin, Ki Jinn. “Thoracic wall blocks: from paravertebral to retrolaminar to serratus to erector spinae and back again–a review of the evidence.” Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology (2019).
Versyck, B., G‐J. van Geffen, and K‐J. Chin. “Analgesic efficacy of the Pecs II block: a systematic review and meta‐analysis.” Anaesthesia 74.5 (2019): 663-673.
In this 162nd episode I welcome Dr. Henao back to the show to discuss hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and how to manage them.
- During our discussion of treatment of eclamptic seizures Dr. Henao said benzos were first line treatment. This is assuming the patient is already getting magnesium. For test questions, the answer for first line treatment should be Mg. In reality, patients will likely get both at the same time.
- Serum Mg concentrations can be reported as mmol/L, meq/L or mg/dL. The important ranges to know for testing (though in reality different people may get symptoms at different times) are a therapeutic range of 2-3.5 mmol/L or 4-7 mEq/L or 5-9 mg/dL; A loss of patellar reflexes at >3.5, >7, >9; Respiratory paralysis at >5, >10, >12 and cardiac arrest at >12.5, >25, >30. EKG changes including prolonged PR and widened QRS happen in much the same range as loss of patellar reflexes, maybe a bit before but there is a lot of overlap.
- Hofmeyr R, Matjila M, Dyer R. Preeclampsia in 2017: Obstetric and Anaesthesia Management. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2017 Mar;31(1):125-138.
- Dhariwal NK, Lynde GC. Update in the Management of Patients with Preeclampsia. Anesthesiol Clin. 2017 Mar;35(1):95-106.
- Aya AG, Mangin R, Vialles N, Ferrer JM, Robert C, Ripart J, de La Coussaye JE. Patients with severe preeclampsia experience less hypotension during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery than healthy parturients: a prospective cohort comparison. Anesth Analg. 2003 Sep;97(3):867-72.
- Roberge S, Nicolaides K, Demers S, Hyett J, Chaillet N, Bujold E. The role of aspirin dose on the prevention of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Feb;216(2):110-120.
- David Chestnut Cynthia Wong Lawrence Tsen Warwick D Ngan Kee Yaakov BeilinJill Mhyre Brian T. Bateman Naveen Nathan. Chestnut’s Obstetric Anesthesia: Principles and Practice. 5th edition. Chapter 36: Hypertensive Disorders. Pg 825-859
Killers of the Flower Moon (Dr. Henao’s random recommendation): https://www.amazon.com/Killers-Flower-Moon-Osage-Murders/dp/0385534248
In this 161st episode I welcome Drs. Regan and Lester to the show to discuss the country’s first combined Anesthesiology and Emergency Medicine dual training program.
Website for the program: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/emergencymedicine/combined-residency/
In this 160th episode I welcome Dr. Dave Berman back to the show to discuss anesthesia for non-OB surgery during pregnancy.
1. Practice Guidelines for Obstetric Anesthesia: An Updated Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Obstetric Anesthesia and the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology. Anesthesiology 2016;124(2):270–300.
2. Nonobstetric Surgery During Pregnancy – ACOG [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 18];Available from: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Nonobstetric-Surgery-During-Pregnancy?IsMobileSet=false
3. Tolcher MC, Fisher WE, Clark SL. Nonobstetric Surgery During Pregnancy. ObstetGynecol 2018;132(2):395–403.
4. UpToDate [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 18];Available from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-the-pregnant-patientundergoing-nonobstetric-surgery
5. Upadya M, Saneesh PJ. Anaesthesia for non-obstetric surgery during pregnancy. Indian J Anaesth 2016;60(4):234–41.
6. Reitman E, Flood P. Anaesthetic considerations for non-obstetric surgery duringpregnancy. Br J Anaesth 2011;107 Suppl 1:i72–8.
7. Nejdlova M, Johnson T. Anaesthesia for non-obstetric procedures during pregnancy. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain 2012;12(4):203–6.
8. Mazze RI, Källén B. Reproductive outcome after anesthesia and operation during pregnancy: a registry study of 5405 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161(5):1178–85.
9. Committee on Obstetric Practice and the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Committee Opinion No. 696: Nonobstetric Surgery During Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2017;129(4):777–8.
10. Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, O’Connor JF, et al. Incidence of early loss of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1988;319(4):189–94.
11. Davidson AJ, Disma N, de Graaff JC, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age after general anaesthesia and awake-regional anaesthesia in infancy (GAS): an international multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2016;387(10015):239–50.
12. Sun LS, Li G, Miller TLK, et al. Association Between a Single General Anesthesia Exposure Before Age 36 Months and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Later Childhood. JAMA 2016;315(21):2312–20.
13. Center for Drug Evaluation, Research. FDA Drug Safety Communication [Internet]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2019 [cited 2019 Jul 21];Available from: http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-drug-safety-communicationfda-review-results-new-warnings-about-using-general-anesthetics-and
14. Huang S-Y, Lo P-H, Liu W-M, et al. Outcomes After Nonobstetric Surgery in Pregnant Patients: A Nationwide Study. Mayo Clin Proc 2016;91(9):1166–72.
In this 159th episode I welcome Dr. Juanita Henao to the show to discuss prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage.
One CORRECTION: At about minute 4:30 Dr. Henao states that in women with PPH the mortality rate is 10% but what she meant to say is that PPH accounts for 10% of maternal deaths in the United States.
Thorneloe, J.C.A. Carvalho, K. Downey,M. Balki. Uterotonic drug usage in Canada: a snapshot of the practice in obstetric units of university-affiliated hospitals. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2019 Feb;37:45-51.
Hian Yan Voon , Haris Njoo Suharjono , Asrul Akmal Shafie , Mohamad Adam Bujang Carbetocin versus oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in cesarean deliveries. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Jun;57(3):332-339.
WOMAN trial collaborators. Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2017 May 27;389(10084):2105-2116.
Main EK, Goffman D, Scavone BM, Low LK, Bingham D, Fontaine PL, Gorlin JB, Lagrew DC, Levy BS; National Partnership for Maternal Safety; Council on Patient Safety in Women’s Health Care.National Partnership for Maternal Safety: Consensus Bundle on Obstetric Hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jul;126(1):155-62.
Duffield A1, McKenzie C, Carvalho B, Ramachandran B, Yin V, El-Sayed YY, Riley ET, Butwick AJ. Effect of a High-Rate Versus a Low-Rate Oxytocin Infusion for Maintaining Uterine Contractility During Elective Cesarean Delivery: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial. Anesth Analg. 2017 Mar;124(3):857-862
David H. Chestnut, Cynthia A Wong, Lawrence C Tsen, Warwick D Ngan Kee, Yaakov Beilin, Jill Mhyre. Chestnut’s Obstetric Anesthesia: Principles and Practice. Fifth edition. Chapter 38, Anterpartum and Postpartum, Hemorrhage.
In this 158th episode we return with another keywords episode with Dr. Gillian Isaac. We discuss hepatic disease for the advanced exam and PACU care for the basic exam.
Cloud Atlas: https://www.amazon.com/Cloud-Atlas-Novel-Liam-Callanan/dp/0385336950
Wolf Hall: https://www.amazon.com/s?k=wolf+hall+by+hilary+mantel&i=stripbooks&crid=2F978D2O2UCW&sprefix=wolf+hall%2Cstripbooks%2C135&ref=nb_sb_ss_i_1_9
Bottle of Lies: https://www.amazon.com/Bottle-Lies-Inside-Story-Generic-ebook/dp/B07JG49BQW/ref=sr_1_1?keywords=bottle+of+lies&qid=1581089047&s=books&sr=1-1
Thanks to Brian Robinson for pointing out: reversal of rocuronium with Sugammadex can occasionally cause severe bronchospasm, especially in higher doses, and this was one of the reasons its release was delayed in the U.S.
Although most sugammadex hypersensitivity reactions cause mild symptoms such as sneezing, nausea, rash, and urticaria, there is a small but finite risk of anaphylaxis with potentially life-threatening symptoms such as airway edema, bronchospasm, and cardiovascular collapse.
www.apsf.org › article › sugammadex-the-anaphylactic-risk